Precariedad, trabajo, literatura
Macabéa –la protagonista del clásico A hora da estrela (1977) de Clarice Lispector—ha sido leída sistemáticamente en su tensión con las representaciones de la nordestina y el universo de lo popular en la cultura brasileña. El presente ensayo, sin embargo, apunta a reinscribir esas discusiones en el marco más vasto y más matizado de la condición precaria como terreno característico de los procesos de neoliberalización que transforman América Latina desde finales de los 70s. Leer a Macabéa y A hora da estrela como figuraciones tempranas de la “vida precaria” –tal la apuesta de lectura del presente ensayo—nos permite dos operaciones fundamentales: por un lado, leer la transformación de las retóricas de la “pobreza” como alteridad --propias de la herencia cultural del desarrollismo latinoamericano-- a la luz de una condición precaria expansiva, contagiosa, que desmarca antagonismos clásicos. Por otro, nos permite leer las transformaciones de las figuraciones culturales del trabajador y la trabajadora a partir de una Macabéa que se evidencia irreductible a ellas, marcando una dislocación decisiva de los modos en que “trabajo” y “subjetividad” se anudan en contextos de neoliberalización. A hora da estrela emerge así como un texto que anticipa gramáticas formales –a la vez estéticas y políticas—que recorren la sociedad neoliberal, señalando así, una vez más, la contemporaneidad urgente de la escritura de Lispector.
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